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Advances in Neuroimmune Biology

Xiao Y. Antwan N. Zhi Q. Jonathan P. Programmed death PD -1 attenuates macrophage activation and brain inflammation via regulation of fibrinogen-like protein 2 Fgl-2 after intracerebral hemorrhage in mice. Tim-3 suppression combined with TLR3 activation enhances antiviral immune response in patients with chronic HCV infection. The core of hepatitis C virus pathogenesis.

Dendritic cells: The warriors upfront-turned defunct in chronic hepatitis C infection. PD-1 deletion restores susceptibility to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in miRdeficient mice. SOCS proteins in infectious diseases of mammals. Are we getting closer to a new pharmacological target?

Advances in hepatitis C virus vaccines, part one: advances in basic knowledge for hepatitis C virus vaccine design. Effects of hepatitis C virus on suppressor of cytokine signaling mRNA levels: Comparison between different genotypes and core protein sequence analysis. Volume 23 Issue 5 Oct To cite this article: Ashley D. Frazier, Chun L. Zhang, Lei Ni, Cheng J. Ma, Ying Zhang, Xiao Y. Wu, Antwan N.

Atia, Zhi Q. Yao, and Jonathan P. Viral Immunology. Oct Close Figure Viewer.

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Previous Figure Next Figure. When infection by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii is introduced via the peritoneal cavity or the bloodstream, IL does not play a detectable role in its pathogenesis, including parasite loads in the brain and liver lesions In contrast, oral inoculation of the parasite into ILdeficient mice results in less disease pathology in the small intestine compared with wild-type controls Thus, IL is pathogenic in the course of T.

By contributing to the maintenance of epithelial barriers, IL helps prevent dissemination of pathogenic bacteria, such as Klebsiella pneuomniae in the lung 57 , or enteropathogens, including Citrobacter rodentium and Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, in the GI tract, thereby limiting bacterial growth 6 , 7. Additionally, IL aids in the elimination of pathogens by inducing different anti-microbial proteins 6 , 7. Although human data indicating a role for IL in infection are sparse, besides correlative reports showing induction of IL during diseases, there is an interesting report that suggests that IL plays a role in human infection.

Patients with autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type I have a high rate of chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis In that study Puel et al. In animal models of candidiasis, there are conflicting reports as to the importance of IL to pathogenesis 59 , In addition to inflammation induced by autoimmune or infectious diseases, IL also plays a role in tissue repair after wounding.

Pickert et al. IL is also important for the regeneration of liver tissue after partial hepatectomy and repair from alcohol-induced damage 52 , In vitro assays have shown that IL treatment of keratinocytes quickens repair after wounding Thus, IL has many roles in aiding tissue repair. Many outstanding questions regarding IL and inflammation exist. Most in vivo studies have not elucidated which ILexpressing cell subset mediates the observed effects. For example, T h 17 cells have been shown to be able to provide protection against hepatitis 50 but the study did not show if this subset was required for protection.

Other studies have distinguished between innate and adaptive immune system-derived IL by comparing models between immunocompetent mice and mice with deficient adaptive immune responses i.

Rag-deficient or scid 6 , Further examination pin-pointing the role of different ILexpressing subsets will allow us to better understand this cytokine. Second, the role of IL not under inflammatory conditions, but instead during homeostasis needs to be more closely examined. IL is expressed constitutively by LTi-like cells within the small intestine, a tissue that is under the careful immune balance between inflammation and tolerance.

Gaining a better understanding of the expression and role of IL in health and disease is important for development of IL as a potential drug target. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide.

Sign In or Create an Account. Sign In. Advanced Search. Article Navigation. Close mobile search navigation Article Navigation. Volume Article Contents. Cells that respond to IL The expression of IL in cells of the immune system. T h 17 cells.

Oncology & Hematology

T h 22 cells. NK cells.

Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology

IL function. Infectious diseases.

Advances in Immunology Volume 66

Tissue repair. Concluding remarks. Recent advances in IL biology Lauren A. Oxford Academic. Google Scholar. Richard A.

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Cite Citation. Permissions Icon Permissions. Abstract Several cell types, in particular epithelial cells, express the receptor for the cytokine IL and upon its recognition produce molecules that are active both locally and systemically.

Stress biology and immunology in Nephrops norvegicus

Human interleukinrelated T cell-derived inducible factor: molecular cloning and functional characterization as an hepatocyte-stimulating factor. Search ADS. Pathways that are shared with and distinct from IL IL ameliorates intestinal inflammation in a mouse model of ulcerative colitis. Interleukin mediates early host defense against attaching and effacing bacterial pathogens.

Lipocalin-2 resistance confers an advantage to Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium for growth and survival in the inflamed intestine. Interleukin IL and IL are coexpressed by Th17 cells and cooperatively enhance expression of antimicrobial peptides. Interleukin, a T H 17 cytokine, mediates ILinduced dermal inflammation and acanthosis. A critical function for transforming growth factor-beta, interleukin 23 and proinflammatory cytokines in driving and modulating human T H responses.

Interleukin IL mediates Toxoplasma gondii-induced immunopathology in the gut via matrixmetalloproteinase-2 and IL but independent of IL The aryl hydrocarbon receptor links THcell-mediated autoimmunity to environmental toxins. Natural agonists for aryl hydrocarbon receptor in culture medium are essential for optimal differentiation of Th17 T cells.

Production of interleukin 22 but not interleukin 17 by a subset of human skin-homing memory T cells.

Immunology - Adaptive Immunity

Identification of a human helper T cell population that has abundant production of interleukin 22 and is distinct from T H , T H 1 and T H 2 cells. Th22 cells represent a distinct human T cell subset involved in epidermal immunity and remodeling. Interleukinproducing gammadelta T cells selectively expand in response to pathogen products and environmental signals.

Cutting edge: immune cells as sources and targets of the IL family members?