Petroleum / Hazardous Liquids Storage Tanks Overview
Calculate the average ranking for all tanks combined. This ranking gives an idea of how petroleum product storage and handling as a whole might affect water quality. This ranking should serve only as a very general guide, not a precise diagnosis. Some problems can be taken care of right away; others could be major or costly projects, requiring planning and prioritizing before action is taken.
Step 6: Consider how to modify farmstead management practices or tank conditions to better protect water quality. Contact your petroleum products supplier, the local conservation district, your Extension office, or the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service for ideas, suggestions, or guidance. The Storage Tank Program at the regional Department of Environmental Protection office TANKS has a complete set of helpful factsheets describing inventory control, farm storage tank requirements, and the various certification programs for storage tank installation and removal.
Cathodic protection: A technique to prevent corrosion of a metal surface by reversing the electrical current between metals or between metals and their surroundings that causes corrosion. A tank can be protected by sacrificial anodes or impressed current. Sacrificial anodes are pieces of metal attached directly to an underground tank or piping that are more electrically active than the steel. Protection by impressed current involves creating an electrical flow from a series of electrodes placed in the ground around the tank and piping.
This current is greater than the corrosive current from the steel, so the metal is preserved. Damage to tanks is caused when a metal underground tank and its underground surroundings act like a battery. Part of the tank becomes negatively charged, and another part positively charged. When the current starts to flow, the negatively charged part of the underground tank system where the current exits from the tank or piping begins to soften, and holes begin to form, causing leaks.
Galvanized: The result of coating iron or steel with zinc. Galvanized materials do not meet corrosion protection requirements for underground applications. Interstitial monitoring: Checking for released petroleum product in the space between the two walls of a doublewalled tank system. Continuous monitoring is done by sensors that are actively checking for the presence of released product in that space at all times. The functioning of these sensors needs to be checked once per month. Periodic monitoring often relies on a manual check of the space for released product with a dip stick at least once per month.
Inventory control: Measuring and comparing the volume of tank contents regularly against product delivery and withdrawal to detect leaks before major problems occur. Generally applies to farm tanks of greater than 1, gallons capacity. Pennsylvania Code Title Pennsylvania legislative act defining and providing for the handling and storage of flammable and combustible liquids, including the prevention of petroleum storage tank fires and explosions P.
Generally applies to tanks with capacities greater than 30 gallons that are used for materials other than home heating fuel oil. Soil drainage: Describes the extent, frequency, and duration of wet soil periods when free water is present close to the land surface. Soil permeability: The characteristic describing the speed at which water or air moves in the soil. Fine-textured materials like clays permit only slow water or air movement through small pores between the particles. Coarse-textured materials like sands permit rapid water and air movement through large pores between the particles.
Soil structure and cracking can increase the movement of water or air through soil by changing the distribution of pore sizes. Spill and overfill protection: Spill protection usually consists of a catch basin for collecting fluids that escape when the tank is filled. Overfill protection is a device warning of or preventing an overfill, such as an automatic shutoff or buzzer. These precautions can prevent groundwater pollution from a number of small releases over a very long period of time.
Tank tightness testing: A procedure for testing the resistance of a tank to releasing any stored substance into the environment, or to intrusion of groundwater into an underground tank. Note: A UTT certified technician is required for regulated underground storage tanks, and recommended for all underground storage tightness testing. Additional funding was provided as part of a h project with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection. Information derived from Farm-A-Syst worksheets is intended only to provide general information and recommendations to farmers regarding their own farmstead practices.
It is not the intent of this educational program to keep records of individual results; however, they may be shared with others who will help you develop a resource management plan. Thank you for your submission! Improper storage of petroleum products can be a threat to the environment. One barrel of crude oil, when refined, produces about 20 gallons of finished motor gasoline Most of the petroleum products are used to produce energy. For instance, many people across the United States use propane to heat their homes and fuel their cars. Other products made from petroleum include: ink, crayons, bubble gum, dishwashing liquids, deodorant, eyeglasses, records, tires, ammonia and heat valves USDE, Thus, primary distillation of crude oil yields petrol which is small relative to demand and yields far more of the higher-boiling constituents than required.
Chemical Economics Handbook
Cracking is the method devised for conversion of the large hydrocarbon molecules into smaller ones. The old thermal cracking used o C temperatures and pressures up to 30 atmospheres. According to Arene and Kitwood , it has been largely replaced by catalytic cracking, using catalyst e.
Catalytic cracking is easier to control and yields specific kinds of products. The resulting alkene is so reactive that it can undergo isomerisation changing its structure. It can also undergo polymerisation joining together to form larger unit. These are important as raw materials for the petrochemical industry. The catalysts may be aluminosilicate materials or cation of palladium and nickel. The products from Hydrocracking are largely alkanes, unlike those from simple cracking which contain alkenes also.
Reforming is a process of alteration of the molecular structure of the hydrocarbons in the lower fractions obtained from primary distillation or from cracking.
The yields are branched-chain hydrocarbons in the C 6 to C 10 range which are needed for high-grade motor fuel. The most effective catalyst consists of platinum about 0. Three kinds of reaction typical of reforming are:. Dehydrocyclisation or formation of a compound with a ring structure from one with a straight chain, followed by loss of hydrogen, e.
It is, therefore, assigned the arbitrary octane number of on a zero-to scale. On the other hand, heptane is a bad fuel, because it is particularly inclined to causing knocking. It is, therefore, assigned the octane number of zero. It is a measure of its performance in an internal-combustion engine.
The quality of the fuel can be improved or the octane number or octane rating of the fuel can be raised by addition of branched-chain hydrocarbons or aromatic compounds. Ethanol and methanol are added to some fuels to improve their performance. Also, tetraethyl-lead IV , Pb C 2 H 5 4 , added in small proportions, greatly increases the octane number of a fuel; 0.
However, this practice has been discouraged and outlawed in most countries because of environmental pollution and lead-poisoning that result from the use of such fuels Kymisis and Hadjistavrou, ; Goss et al. According to Bankole and Ogunkoya , Tedder et al. Even, inorganic chemicals have been produced from petrochemical, e.get link
Petroleum product - Wikipedia
Table 2 lists some chemicals produced from petrochemicals. For instance, methane, ethyne and synthesis gas are petrochemicals from which other chemicals are produced. From methane, carbon black, ethyne, synthesis gas, halogenmethanes and hydrogen cyanide are produced. From ethyne, chloroethene compounds and ethanal are produced.
And, from synthesis gas, methanol and ammonia are produced. Even though petroleum products make life easier by their use in fueling airplanes, cars, trucks, cooking stoves and other applications in combustion engines, as well as in heating our homes, using them can cause environmental problems, like air and water pollution. When petroleum products are burned as fuel, they give off carbon dioxide CO 2 , a greenhouse gas that is linked with global warming.
The use of petroleum products also gives off pollutants-Carbon monoxide CO , nitrogen oxides, particulate matter and unburned hydrocarbons-that pollute the air humans breathe. Since a lot of air pollution comes from cars and trucks, many environmental laws have been aimed at changing the make-up of gasoline and diesel fuel so that they produce fewer emissions.
Examples of Petrochemicals and Petroleum Products
These "reformulated fuels" are much cleaner burning than gasoline and diesel fuel was in In the next few years, the amount of sulphur contained in gasoline and diesel fuel will be reduced dramatically so that they can be used with new, less-polluting again technology USDE, Exploring and drilling for oil may disturb land and ocean habitats. Oil spills have degraded most agricultural lands, reduced the availability of fish and fish products, caused the pollution of surface and ground water resources, destruction of arable and tree crops and death of farm animals in the region as a result of toxic materials in the soil and polluted water.
Oil exploration activities have also resulted in the disappearance of some forest vegetation and animal species, including primates, fish, turtles and birds. The ultimate result of these impacts is a drastic reduction in farm productivity and animal farm income Ugwu, ; Eneh, a , b ; Tabieh and Al-Horani, ; Al-Turki, New technologies have greatly reduced the number and size of areas disturbed by drilling, sometimes called "footprints. Again, the use of horizontal and directional drilling makes it possible for a single well to produce oil from much bigger areas.
Today's production footprints are only about one-fourth the size of those of 30 years ago, due to the development of movable drilling rigs and smaller "slimhole" drilling rigs. When the oil in a well is gone, the well must be plugged below ground, although its soil fertility is gone. As part of the "rig-to-reefs" programme, some old offshore rigs are toppled and left on the sea floor to become artificial reefs that attract fish and other marine life. Within six months to a year after a rig is toppled, it becomes covered with barnacles, coral, sponges, clams and other sea creatures USDE, If oil is spilled into rivers or oceans it can harm wildlife.
Oil spills can come from natural oil seeps from the ocean floor, ships that crash, or leaks that happen when petroleum products are used on land, such as the gasoline that sometimes drips onto the ground when people are filling their gas tanks, motor oil that gets thrown away after an oil change, or fuel that escapes from a leaky storage tank. When it rains, the spilled products get washed into the gutter and eventually go to rivers and the ocean.
Another way that oil sometimes gets into water is when fuel is leaked from motorboats and jet skis USDE, When a leak in a storage tank or pipeline occurs, petroleum products can also get into the ground.
Other Uses of Petroleum
In some places where gasoline has leaked from storage tanks, one of the gasoline ingredients, called Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether MTBE , has made its way into local water supplies. Since MTBE makes water taste bad and many people are worried about drinking it, a number of states are banning the use of MTBE in gasoline and the refining industry is voluntarily moving away from using it when blending reformulated gasoline.
To prevent leaks from underground storage tanks, all buried tanks are supposed to be replaced by tanks with a double lining USDE, The review has attempted to marry dated and current literature on petroleum.
It has brought out clearly the meaning of petroleum from the Medieval Latin words, petra and oleum; the uses of petroleum, the two plausible theories on the origin and formation of petroleum; petroleum exploration and the major petroleum producing countries in the world, including the member states of the Organisation of the Petroleum Exporting Countries, OPEC; the nature and composition of petroleum; petroleum processing and products; octane number or rating, the petrochemical industry; and petroleum and the environment. Subscribe Today.
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