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He was also schooled in issues of the constitution. As Cyrus gets older, he develops a tendency to scheme and plot to overthrow those who have helped him. He is a vessel to the Medes, an ancient Iranian people who live in Mesopotamia. Taking on the role of General in their Army, he is instrumental in helping them to defend themselves against the avaricious Babylonians, a small, provincial area fighting well above their weight category.

Babylonia was being ruled by a tyrant, the son of a King who was far more benevolent than his offspring, and who had been greatly admired and respected. Cyrus begins to forge alliances with many of the smaller, neighboring nations including the Armenians.

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The Egyptian army also position themselves alongside the Babylonians, but most of their former allies have been convinced by Cyrus to stand alongside him in helping the Medeans. Having successfully put together a large, multi-national army, Cyrus returns to Babylon, using the river to help his army move past the Babylonian forces, and conquering them on the night of a Festival as they all celebrate.

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He diverts the Euphrates River from its usual course, and it is this feat that creates the possibility of victory. Cyrus builds an incredible Empire,but after his death, it collapses quickly. It is only his unique way of ruling his people, and the loyalty he inspires in his monarchy, that has enabled his Empire to grow and for this growth to be sustained during his life. What is the relation, if any, to it of Xenophon Ephesius, Antheia, and Abrocomas?

Xenophon Ephesius , a late writer of romances. Had that writer any echo of the names in his head? What language are "Pantheia" and "Abradatas"? Is that a slip, or how explainable? I think he is betrayed into the description by reason of his interest in such strategic matters. The expression is intelligible enough to any one who knows about engines, just as we might speak of the butt or the stanchion, or whatever it be.

The Medians bring back the bread that was cast upon the waters. Cyrus turns this gain to new account. He sacrifices the present natural gain, i. Cyrus is the archic man. I have a sort of idea, or feeling that here the writer takes up his pen afresh after a certain interval. C are a reduplication, not unnatural indeed, but pro tanto tautological. Semi-historical basis. Prototype, when Agesilaus meditated the advance on Persia, just before his recall.

See Hellenica , III. The archic man can by a word of his mouth still the flutter and incipient heave of terror-stricken hearts. A review of the improvements amounting to a complete revolution in arms and attack effected by Cyrus.

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This is imagined as an ideal accompaniment to the archic man and conqueror. Xenophon nowadays on the relative advantages of the bayonet and the sword, cavalry and infantry, etc. See below C. Xenophon has more than once witnessed this clouding of the brow, the scowl or sulk of the less stalwart moral-fibred men notably in Hellenica. How to give up wine: the art in it. Now listen, all you blue-ribbonists! Xenophon, Hygienist.

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One would like to know how the price was regulated. Does any learned German know? Note the orderliness and economy of it all. Is it, as far as the army goes, novel in any respect, do you suppose, or only idealised Hellenic?

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A slight intentional? Did H.

Notice the part given to the Egyptians to play. Agesilaus died on his last campaign in Egypt. Is it dramatic to make Cyrus speak in this way as if he were lecturing a class on strategics? The advantage even of sutlers and women. This several-times-repeated remark surprises me. At Cunaxa, however, the Persian did get behind the Greek camp.

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No prototype there, then. Xenophon, Anabasis , Bk.

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Notice how in this stirring and inspiriting speech Cyrus by dealing with the Egyptians the only unknown quantity strikes a new note and sets up a new motive, as it were, preparing us for the tragic struggle which is to come, which will cost Abradatas and other good men dear, not to speak of the brave Egyptians themselves cf. Sudanese Arabs. Also note Xenophon's enthusiasm in reference to the new arming and the odds of encounter between cavalry and infantry cf. Napier, Forbes, etc. And he took his breakfast where he stood, after making the due offering, sharing what he had with all who needed it, and he poured out the libation and prayed, and then drank, and his men with him.

Then he supplicated Zeus, the god of his fathers, to be his leader and helper in the fight, and so he mounted his horse and bade those about him follow. Their horses had frontlets, chest-plates, and armour for their shoulders, all of bronze, and the shoulder-pieces served as leg-guards for the riders. In one thing only the arms of Cyrus differed from the rest: theirs was covered with a golden varnish and his flashed like a mirror. So he set forth with Chrysantas on his right at the head of cavalry and Arsamas on his left with infantry.

The standard was a golden eagle, with outspread wings, borne aloft on a long spear-shaft, and to this day such is the standard of the Persian king. Before they came in full sight of the Assyrians Cyrus halted the army thrice. As soon as both armies were in full view of each other, and the Assyrians could see how much they outflanked the Persians on either side, Croesus halted, in order to prepare an encircling movement, and pushed out a column on the right wing and the left, so that the Persian forces might be attacked on every side at once. Meanwhile he noticed that the turning-point where the Assyrians had pushed out on either flank was an immense distance from their centre, and he said to Chrysantas:.

Do you," he said, turning to Arsamas, "advance with your infantry, slowly, taking your pace from me, and do you, Chrysantas, march beside him with your cavalry, step for step.

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I will make for their angle myself, where I propose to join battle, first riding round the army to see how things are with all our men. You will know when we have closed with the enemy, the din will be loud enough. At the same moment Abradatas will dash out upon them: such will be his orders; your duty is to follow, keeping as close to the chariots as possible. Thus we shall fall on the enemy at the height of his confusion. And, God helping me, I shall be with you also, cutting my way through the rout by the quickest road I can.

As he passed between the chariots and the cuirassiers, he would say to some, "My men, the look on your faces rejoices my heart," and to others, "You understand, gentlemen, that this battle is not for the victory of a day, but for all that we have won ere now, and for all our happiness to come. This day all gallant hearts are bidden; this day they may feast their friends. He who loves his own soul let him fight beside me: for I will have no disgrace. You know the brave man's part in battle, and the craven's.

You hold the first rank among our friends. And you will not forget, when the moment for action comes, that those who watch you will be Persians, and those who follow you, and they will not let you bear the brunt alone. So that for myself," said he, "if I had not won by lot the post I hold, I should feel ashamed to be here in the safest place of all. God willing, I mean to relieve our flanks. But you yourself, I conjure you, do not attack until you see the rout of those detachments that you fear. So much of boasting did Cyrus allow himself on the eve of action, though he was the last man to boast at other times.

Breathe a spirit of emulation into them, to make them prove themselves the flower of the chariot-force. Be assured if things go well with us all men will say nothing is so profitable as valour.