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According to this study, most of the polypharmacy patients were middle aged and elderly.

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A hospitalized geriatric patient used different active substances during 30 days [ 35 ]. Besides, they stated that potentially inappropriate medicine is associated with polypharmacy during the use of 10 or more drugs [ 34 ]. Finkers et al. Polypharmacy is a common practice to treat geriatric patients; also, it was found in Like many other countries in the world, polypharmacy is also widespread among geriatric patients in Sweden.

Moreover, Haider et al. Health professionals involve in different stages of the health care services from the prescription until the usage of the drugs [ 14 , 19 ].

Stanford Hospital's Dr. Mehrdad Ayati on Prescribing Drugs for an Aging Population

Geriatric patients are an important part of the patient group on briefing because of their cognitive abilities. Especially, pharmacists as the most easily accessible health professionals have significant role on informing of the patients about rational drug use [ 4 , 27 ]. Pharmacists show ultimate attention to provide information to the patients [ 39 ]. Old patients, due to their chronic diseases, since they use more drugs than other age groups and they are more likely to be under risk, they are frequently in communication with their pharmacists [ 41 ].

It is indicated that geriatric patients prefer responsible, friendly and cooperative pharmacists [ 41 ]. Moreover, counselling services that can be provided along with are thus aligned as follows [ 4 ]: To control the drug interaction.

It should be noted the importance that it will provide important benefits to In order for pharmacists to make appropriate interventions about the use of drugs, it is necessary that the pharmacy service is patient oriented and the relationship between the patient and the pharmacist is important [ 4 , 31 , 39 , 41 ]. With an appropriate communication between them can prevent possible medication errors. Among health service providers, pharmacists take an important place and to provide better service, they have to have sufficient information to make appropriate interventions [ 42 ].

During their undergraduate educations, the pharmacists must have detailed information about the geriatric patients, and if it is provided, the service they provide will be more qualified [ 43 ]. In addition, in the health services provided to the elder people, at common approaches that lead to various problems particularly like polypharmacy, to prevent patient injury, all health personnel should be working as a team. In necessary cases, while prescribing appropriate drugs, physicians should cooperate with the pharmacists and the nurses while tracking and applying the drugs for the patients who are hospitalized and who are staying in nursing homes should come together with the pharmacists in necessary cases, and this will minimize the problems faced by the use of drug of older patients.

Moreover, at various problems that the patients in question are facing, orienting the patients to the specialists like physiotherapists and dieticians who are experts in their fields will contribute positively to the quality of life of the patients. Therefore, side effects of medications have negative impact on geriatric patients, particularly polypharmacy. Some of these changes are listed below [ 45 — 48 ]: Absorption problems can be occurring because of the high gastric pH, insufficient absorption space and gastrointestinal motility.

Because of these, solubility and chemical stability of drugs can be changed and active transport can be decreased.

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In addition to these, the risk of esophageal lesions can be increased. Decrease on the activity of cytochrome P and hepatic blood flow affect the metabolism. Excretion also changes because of the decreased rate of glomerular filtration and tubular secretion.

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However, an effective communication between the pharmacists and the patient and reasonable intervention by the pharmacist could prevent these negative effects [ 19 , 25 , 27 ]. Some of the important points that the other health personnel with the pharmacists should pay attention in the application of polypharmacy for the geriatric patients are listed as below: While informing the patients with vision loss occurring by senility, caution should be exercised.

In cases where written information should be given, attention should be paid to the preparation of the articles can be read easily. In those types of cases, especially while preparing reminders regarding when and how to use the drugs, it would be useful to use pictograms. Hearing loss is common in geriatric patients is a condition that should not be forgotten during providing health services.

Especially while informing those patients, it is necessary to set the voice tone appropriately.


The Geriatric Population and Psychiatric Medication

It would be helpful to use special drug cases for easy tracking especially for the patients who have memorial problems like dementia. If necessary, the related health personnel should come into play while placing the pills to the boxes that will be used daily, weekly and monthly. Like in the other patient groups, for the provision of the pharmacy services by especially paying attention to the secrecy of the geriatric patients, there must be a separate place in pharmacies to protect privacy [ 40 ].

Besides, in some cases, dementia has caused some problems with regard to informed consent and autonomy, which are important ethical component. Health care professionals must be more careful especially during the polypharmacy. Also, the principle of justice should not be forgotten during the allocation of limited health resources [ 49 ]. Age-related pulmonary crackles rales in asymptomatic cardiovascular patients.

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