Order by , and we can deliver your NextDay items by. In your cart, save the other item s for later in order to get NextDay delivery. We moved your item s to Saved for Later. There was a problem with saving your item s for later. You can go to cart and save for later there. Refine by Price. Top Brands. Store Availability. Ship to home. Free pickup. Free pickup today. Flavor Fruit Punch Mango See more flavors. Retailer Walmart. Bang Bang. Keywords : Decision making; electricity retail market; demand response; Stackelberg game; Bi-level programming problem.
However, driven by fiscal priorities, state programs are increasingly resorting to aggressive tariff reduction to minimise compliance costs. This article first highlights the trends in solar tariffs and estimates the underlying levelised cost of energy LCOE. We further delve into the broader institutional context and sectoral issues that motivate these trends. Finally, we evaluate the implications of low tariffs from the perspective of risk using quantitative simulations.
Our results suggest that the levelised costs vary widely when evaluated against different risk scenarios. Based on these results we propose recommendations for policy makers in the context of determining tariffs that balance the interests of different stakeholders.
Multiobjective regional energy planning: Application to the energy park concept
Keywords : renewable energy; risk; simulation; solar energy; tariffs; India; Monte-Carlo; energy policy;. Jayaraj, A. One of the methods of using alternative fuels is operating the IC engines in dual fuel mode. This review is an attempt to highlight the investigations on the HHO gas supplemented combustion in IC engines, particularly the diesel operated ones. HHO gas has better burning characteristics than pure hydrogen since hydrogen and oxygen does not attain the diatomic state.
Hence, ideally HHO gas is having higher energy releasing capability. HHO inducted systems show better performance than that of the ordinary diesel engines in terms of brake thermal efficiency, specific fuel consumption, and engine torque. HHO inducted systems also show better emission characteristics.
The paper conducts qualitative analysis by focusing on the IPAT equation and quantitative analysis using panel data methods. The results of the qualitative analysis show that political factors, such as wars and unrest, affect the environmental quality in the GCC region.
The results of comparative static analysis show that the increase in population, GDP, and energy production increase CO2 emissions. Through panel regression methods, we fail to reject the null hypotheses as suggested by the comparative static analysis, hence the paper concludes that population, GDP, and energy supply cause environmental pollution in the GCC region.
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Considering the current water crisis around the world, it is essential to improve the design of these cooling towers to reduce their water consumption while maintaining their cooling performance. Makeup water of cooling tower is usually a constant temperature water which is cold enough to condensate the moisture content of the cooling tower exhaust air. Therefore, it has a great potential to recycle water evaporation of cooling towers, which is not considered so far.
This paper investigates a novel design for cooling towers utilizing the makeup water to recycle part of the evaporated water. To perform a realistic evaluation of this idea, the experimental data of a real world cooling tower were measured. The results show that this design will recycle liters water during 2 hours of cooling tower operation. This paper has highlighted the importance of using makeup water in reducing the water consumption of wet cooling towers. Keywords : Wet cooling tower; Water saving; Makeup water; Air conditioning. The paper aims at identifying the influencing factors in scaling up of grid interactive wind power through the lens of entrepreneurs and state policies.
Adequate tariff, savings on power expenditure in industries, renewable purchase obligation RPO targets, long-term power purchase agreements, liberal energy banking and favourable open access policies are found to be encouraging while insufficient tariff, delayed payments, policy uncertainties, limitations in energy banking and difficult land processes are counted as barriers.
Country level analysis reveals that presently the installed capacities are unable to respond to the state wind tariff though it strongly responds to the power tariff for industries.
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Suggestions to develop a policy scenario wherein the installed capacities respond to the state tariff are proposed. The scope of wind power is to be enhanced through favourable open access policies and high RPO targets. Keywords : grid interactive wind power; state policies; entrepreneurs; barriers; influencing factors; India. The absence of sufficient collateral, good business plans, and high interest rates are barriers to acquiring bank loans in Ghana.
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The study was to identify possible avenues for funding oil and gas projects and challenges indigenous firms SMEs within the oil and gas value chain encounter in accessing funds. A questionnaire survey was performed with some banks and oil and gas service providing companies in Ghana. We showed that SMEs have lower success rate in accessing bank loans compared to well-established firms due to repayment risk.
Therefore, financial institutions could resort to the project finance method to reduce such risk for projects within the oil and gas industry.
We conclude that project finance is a viable avenue for SMEs to finance oil and gas projects in developing countries despite the associated bottlenecks. Keywords : energy technology and policy; project finance model; developing countries; Ghana's oil and gas industry; small and medium scale enterprise; SMEs; indigenous entrepreneurs; Ghanaian economy; project finance strategies; working capital; start-up capital; interest rates; trust fund; barriers to financing oil and gas projects.
The net nuclear electricity generation projected by this study then was compared to those projected in the International Energy Outlook published by the US Energy Information Administration. The projection from this study is For four other countries, Energy Information Administration's projections are higher than those from this study, but by a smaller margin. Implications from the findings will be discussed. Keywords : nuclear electricity intensity; net nuclear electricity generation; experience curve; kinked experience curve; progress ratio. This provides empirical evidence on the thermal power plants capability to back-up variable generation from wind energy.
Greenhouse emission reduction per day were Keywords : energy integration; flexible operations; thermal power; unit commitment model; wind energy; Nigeria. The DEA objective function was to make the minimum changes to the proposed policy rates for hydroelectricity generation subject to the known capabilities and risks calculated from a beta distribution. The DEA decision variables were the proposed changes to the policy rates for each month. The simplex linear programming technique was used to implement DEA in a spreadsheet. Screen shots were included to illustrate how to setup the DEA spreadsheet.
The results of this paper should generalise to policy makers, practitioners, analysts and researchers in the public utility and specifically in the clean renewable hydroelectricity community. Keywords : data envelopment analysis; DEA; operations research; hydroelectricity; clean renewable energy; park; risk; beta distribution; spreadsheet office automation software models. The industry has to re-engineer itself to a cane flexi-factory for its survival.
A cane flexi-factory consists of a sugar mills, cogeneration power plant, bio-ethanol distillery, value-added sugars refinery and a bio-fertiliser manufacturing plant. Although one such refinery is in operation in Mauritius, the area of land area under sugar cultivation is decreasing. The outputs of the flexi-factory can be increased through implementation of higher pressure boiler; higher fibre cane; energy cane; cane tops and leaves; addition of a falling thin film evaporator and use drip irrigation technique. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the possible options to optimise the performance of a flexi-factory through the multi-criteria assessment approach.
The outcome of the assessment will help policy makers to prioritise the implementation of these alternatives in the short, medium and long term. Due to associated complexities and uncertainties, decision makers and energy planners face increasing pressure to effectively address energy related challenges, including approaches to low carbon energy provision. The model then helps to investigate ways to bridge the electricity supply and demand gaps by simulating various performance scenarios based on real socio-economic variables and estimation of CO2.
A total of six policy scenarios were implemented. Finally, capability of SD was affirmed by properly capturing feedbacks, delays, and other complexities in the NPS.
Keywords : system dynamics; carbon dioxide; Nigerian power sector; energy planning; energy policy; Mambilla hydropower. The development of this industry is therefore very crucial, especially for countries with huge resources of fossil fuels. The mid and downstream sectors of the oil and gas industry in Iran have not been paid attention as much as the upstream sector in recent studies.
Since the investment is a crucial factor in the development of any system, this study aims to investigate and model the effects of domestic investment dynamics on the petrochemical industry development in Iran using System Dynamics SD methodology. A review of more than 90 published papers is presented here to analyze the applicability of various methods discussed. View via Publisher. Alternate Sources.
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Citations Publications citing this paper. Shafiullah , Farhad Shahnia. A general type-2 Fuzzy Logic based Multi-Criteria group decision making for lighting level selection in an intelligent environment Syibrah Nairm , Hani Hagras.