Chicanos, regardless of their generational status, may seek both Western biomedical healthcare and Indigenous health practices when dealing with trauma or illness. The effects of colonization and conquest have been proven to produce psychological distress among Indigenous communities. Similarly, intergenerational trauma along with racism and institutionalized systems of oppression which emerged from colonization have been shown to adversely impact the mental health of Chicanos and Latinos.
Digitally Mapping and Exhibiting the Plains’ Chicana/o Movement
Mexican Americans are three times more likely than European Americans to live in poverty. However, the utilization rate of mental health services is lower and lower levels of psychiatric distress were reported among Chicanos. Similar studies demonstrate lower comparative levels of distress in regard to physical health as well.
Among Mexican immigrants who have lived in the United States for less than thirteen years, lower rates of mental health disorders were found in comparison to Mexican-Americans and Chicanos born in the United States. Scholar Yvette G. Flores concludes that these studies demonstrate that "factors associated with living in the United States are related to an increased risk of mental disorders.
The disconnection of Chicanos from their Indigeneity has been cited as a cause of trauma and negative mental health: . Loss of language, cultural rituals, and spiritual practices creates shame and despair. The loss of culture and language often goes unmourned, because it is silenced and denied by those who occupy, conquer, or dominate.
Such losses and their psychological and spiritual impact are passed down across generations, resulting in depression, disconnection, and spiritual distress in subsequent generations, which are manifestations of historical or intergenerational trauma. Psychological distress may emerge from Chicanos being " othered " in society since childhood and is linked to psychiatric disorders and symptoms which are culturally bound — susto fright , nervios nerves , mal de ojo evil eye , and ataque de nervios an attack of nerves resembling a panic attack.
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Many currents came together to produce the revived Chicano political movement of the s and s. Simultaneous movements like the Young Lords , to empower youth, question patriarchy, democratize the Church , end police brutality, and end the Vietnam War , all intersected with other ethnic nationalist , peace , countercultural , and feminist movements. Since Chicanismo covers a wide array of political, religious and ethnic beliefs, and not everybody agrees with what exactly a Chicano is, most new Latino immigrants see it as a lost cause, as a lost culture, because Chicanos do not identify with Mexico or wherever their parents migrated from as new immigrants do.
Chicanoism is an appreciation of a historical movement, but also is used by many to bring a new revived politicized feeling to voters young and old in the defense of Mexican and Mexican-American rights. People descended from Aztlan both in the contemporary U. For some, Chicano ideals involve a rejection of borders. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo transformed the Rio Grande region from a rich cultural center to a rigid border poorly enforced by the United States government. Paired with the dissipation of militant political efforts of the Chicano movement in the s was the emergence of the Chicano generation.
The shared Spanish language, Catholic faith, close contact with their political homeland Mexico to the south, a history of labor segregation, ethnic exclusion and racial discrimination encourage a united Chicano or Mexican folkloric tradition in the United States. Ethnic cohesiveness is a resistance strategy to assimilation and the accompanying cultural dissolution. Mexican nationalists in Mexico, however, condemn the advocates of Chicanoism for attempting to create a new identity for the Mexican-American population, distinct from that of the Mexican nation.
Chicanoism is embraced through personal identity especially within small rural communities that integrate the American culture connected to the Mexican heritage practiced in different parts of Mexico. The term Chicano is also used to describe the literary, artistic, and musical movements that emerged with the Chicano Movement.
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The first wave occurred from to and was characterized by the creation of radical documentaries which chronicled "the cinematic expression of a cultural nationalist movement, it was politically contestational and formally oppositional. Chicano literature tends to focus on themes of identity, discrimination, and culture, with an emphasis on validating Mexican-American and Chicano culture in the United States. The novel Chicano , by Richard Vasquez, was the first novel about Mexican Americans to be released by a major publisher Doubleday, It was widely read in high schools and universities during the s and is now recognized as a breakthrough novel.
Vasquez's social themes have been compared with those found in the work of Upton Sinclair and John Steinbeck. Chicana writers have tended to focus on themes of identity, questioning how identity is constructed, who constructs it, and for what purpose in a racist, classist, and patriarchal stucture. Chicano writers have tended to gravitate toward themes of cultural, racial, and political tensions in their work, while not explicitly focusing on issues of identity or gender and sexuality, in comparison to the work of Chicana writers.
As noted by scholar Juan Bruce-Novoa, Chicano novels allowed for androgynous and complex characters "to emerge and facilitate a dialogue on nonnormative sexuality" and that homosexuality was "far from being ignored during the s and s" in Chicano literature, although homophobia may have curtailed portrayals of openly gay characters during this era. Given this representation in early Chicano literature, Bruce-Novoa concludes, "we can say our community is less sexually repressive than we might expect.
Rodriguez and Pat Mora. Lalo Guerrero has been lauded as the "father of Chicano music". Some of these artists, like the band Quetzal , are known for the political content of political songs. The Chicano Movement was affected not only those in the United States and Mexico but the Chicano culture has also gone abroad to countries such as Japan. Influencers such as Shin Miyata raised the awareness of Chicano culture in Japan.
Joan Baez , who was also of Mexican-American descent, included Hispanic themes in some of her protest folk songs. Chicano rock is rock music performed by Chicano groups or music with themes derived from Chicano culture. There are two undercurrents in Chicano rock. One is a devotion to the original rhythm and blues roots of Rock and roll including Ritchie Valens , Sunny and the Sunglows , and?
The second theme is the openness to Latin American sounds and influences. Rock band The Mars Volta combines elements of progressive rock with traditional Mexican folk music and Latin rhythms along with Cedric Bixler-Zavala 's Spanglish lyrics. Chicano punk is a branch of Chicano rock. Some music historians argue that Chicanos of Los Angeles in the late s might have independently co-founded punk rock along with the already-acknowledged founders from British-European sources when introduced to the US in major cities.
The term was reportedly coined in by rock critic Dave Marsh in a review of their show for Creem magazine. Although Latin jazz is most popularly associated with artists from the Caribbean particularly Cuba and Brazil, young Mexican Americans have played a role in its development over the years, going back to the s and early s, the era of the zoot suit , when young Mexican-American musicians in Los Angeles and San Jose , such as Jenni Rivera , began to experiment with banda , a jazz -like fusion genre that has grown recently in popularity among Mexican Americans.
Hip hop culture, which is cited as having formed in the s street culture of African American , West Indian especially Jamaican , and Puerto Rican New York City Bronx youth and characterized by DJing , rap music , graffiti , and breakdancing , was adopted by many Chicano youth by the s as its influence moved westward across the United States.
Rappers such as Ice-T and Easy-E shared their music and commercial insights with Chicano rappers in the late s. Chicano rap is a unique style of hip hop music which started with Kid Frost, who saw some mainstream exposure in the early s.
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Chicano rap tends to discuss themes of importance to young urban Chicanos. Some of today's Chicano artists include A. Chicano rap has also reached overseas in Japan. In the visual arts, works by Chicanos address similar themes as works in literature.
The preferred media for Chicano art are murals , graphic arts , and graffiti art. Rasquache art is a unique style subset of the Chicano Arts movement.
Some sources say Mexican-American graffiti culture in Los Angeles was already "in full bloom" in the s, stretching as far back as to when "shoeshine boys marked their names on the walls with their daubers to stake out their spots on the sidewalk" in the early 20th century. Chicano art emerged in the mids as a necessary component to the urban and agrarian civil rights movement in the Southwest, known as la causa chicana , la Causa , or the Chicano Renaissance.
The artistic spirit, based on historical and traditional cultural evolution, within the movement has continued into the present millennium. Some artists and crafters have transcended the motifs, forms, functions, and context of Chicano references in their work but still acknowledge their identity as Chicano.
These emerging artists are incorporating new materials to present mixed-media, digital media, and transmedia works. Lalo Alcaraz often depicts the issues of Chicanos in his cartoon series called "La Cucaracha. One of the most powerful and far-reaching cultural aspects of Chicano culture is the Indigenous current that strongly roots Chicano culture to the American continent.
It also unifies Chicanismo within the larger Pan-Indian Movement.
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Since its arrival in , an art movement known as Danza Azteca in the U. Lowrider cars also figure prominently as functional art in the Chicano community. Chicano art has also been trending in Japan especially among the youth. The capital for Chicano art in Japan is located in Osaka, Japan. Night Tha Funksta is one of the leading figures of Chicano art and provided his own take for his artwork.
Chicano culture is often associated with the gangs and cholos which appeals to the Japanese youth with the idea of rebellion. Instead of focusing on the images of gangs, Night focuses his art on the more positive images of the Chicano culture and its roots. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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For the wrestler, see Sangre Chicana. For other uses, see Chicano disambiguation. League of United Latin American Citizens. Mexican American Political Association.